1993 Institute for Energy Research (IER) Articles of Incorporation

This document from 1993 is the formal incorporation of the Institute for Energy Research (IER), from the Texas Secretary of State.

The Institute for Energy Research was originally co-founded by Charles Koch and former Enron executive Robert L. Bradley in 1984, under the name “Institute for Humane Studies of Texas.”

The document was first reported by Lee Fang for Republic Report in 2014:

“In October of 1984, Charles, then using a Menlo Park, California address founded a non-profit called the Institute for Humane Studies of Texas. That organization briefly lost its charter in 1989 for failure to pay the Texas state franchise tax. Four years later, incorporation documents reveal, the group rebranded as the Institute for Energy Research, or IER, which later formed a subsidiary called the American Energy Alliance.”